Are you ready to learn how to spear fish?
If so, then you’ve found the right place to wrap your head around the basics. In this article, we are going to cover the high-level basics of spearfishing to get you started.
Each part of this article will be linked to more in-depth guides so you can go deeper on a specific topic.
Listen to the Cast & Spear Podcast
Basics of How to Spear Fish
- Basic Spearfishing Equipment
- Finding a Dive Buddy
- How to Spear Fish
- Spearfishing for Beginners: Techniques and Best Practices
- Beginner Spearfishing Locations
- Beginner Spearfishing Fish Types
- How to Relax and Hold Your Breathe
Don’t let this shortlist of topics overwhelm you. Nothing beats time in the water, but it doesn’t hurt for you to have a few of these tips and tricks in the back of your mind to make the learning process more enjoyable.
Now before you jump straight in the water, let’s do an inventory of your equipment needs so you can actually spearfish.
Basic Spearfishing Equipment
Spearfishing equipment can be as complicated as you make it. There are some new spearos out there who use used equipment until they feel comfortable in the water to buy new gear.
There are also those who go to a freediving shop and purchase everything brand new before ever spearfishing themselves.
Either method is fine, it all comes down to personal preference. If you have the money, I recommend focusing on buying quality basics that you’ll use for a long time, such as spearfishing wetsuit, freediving mask and snorkel, speargun, and spearfishing fins.
Now there are more pieces of equipment to buy, but those can be used if you need to save money.
Check out our detailed spearfishing gear guide for more in-depth information.
No matter what, if you want to spear fish, you’re going to need a fishing spear and a device that thrusts the spear into the fish. Let’s take a look at some options.
When people first hear about spearfishing, they imagine a fishing spear that the fisher holds in their hand and throws it at the fish…
This could work if you’re standing on the edge of a lake or tide pool, but this isn’t the spearfishing we’re going to cover.
Spearfishing for this article means getting in the water and using either a pole spear or speargun to thrust a fishing spear through the water and into the fish. After the fish has been hit, the spearo kills the fish in a humane way, puts it on his stringer or in the boat, and continues the hunt.
Let’s take a look at some basic considerations for pole spears.
Pole Spear Fishing
Spearfishing with a pole spear is an ancient practice that has been used for thousands of years. The concept is straightforward with the spearo using a straight long shaft with a pointed tip and an elastic band to throw the spear forward.
With a straight enough shot and enough force from the band, the spear should penetrate through the fish.
When the term pole spear is thrown around, what typically pops up in a person’s mind is the Hawaiian Sling. Let’s briefly look at what one of those is.
Hawaiian Sling Spear
The term Hawaiian Sling is a device that propels a spear forward using a band. Think of how a bow works to throw an arrow through the air and into a target.
The same is done with a Hawaiian sling in the water. Usually, it’s made from a comfortable block that has a rubber band attached to it. The spearo then puts the spear through the block and pulls it back adding tension in the rubber…just like a bow and arrow.
The spearo will then hold this position while hunting for the fish. If the spearo tires out, then they can just release the tension in the band until they see a fish.
If you want the feel of a bow and arrow underwater, you should check out this bow and arrow-inspired Sea Archer Hawaiian slings.
The definition for a Hawaiian sling is broad enough to include your hand to act as the block, but most spearos call this all in one package a pole spear.
Hawaiian Sling Vs. Pole Spear
As mentioned above, for the purpose of this article we’ll be calling a Hawaiian sling a device that has the rubber band separate from the spear.
A pole spear, in this case, will be a wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber, or metal shaft with a sharp tip and a rubber band attached to the base of the spear. The spearo will load the band by placing their around the band resting their four fingers on one side and their thumb on the other and pulling the band up as close to the tip as possible.
The main difference between a Hawaiian sling and a pole spear is how many hands it takes to operate the release of the spear.
A Hawaiian sling is similar to a bow and arrow so you’ll need two hands to fire. A pole spear only needs two hands to load and one hand to fire.
This all comes down to personal preference and practice for being deadly with either device. Both are equally effective in the water for spearing fish. The real question is do you have the right tip to keep the fish from escaping?
Let’s take a look at some of your options.
Pole Spear Tips
Three prong tips
The basic pole spear tips commonly used are three-prong tips. They are either straight or barbed spikes that angle outward away from the spear shaft. When this pierce the fish the angle pushes the flesh outwards keeping the fish from getting away.
Single and Double Flopper Tips
This is another common variation of tips used to keep fish from getting away. After the tip goes all the way through the fish, once the fish tries to swim away, the metal flopper opens up and prevents the spear from exiting the location it entered.
Slip tips are used when you’re going after big fish. You can actually take large fish with sling or pole spear when you attach a slip tip to the end to give more play and not let the fish breakaway after being hit. Just make sure you have a float line attached to the end of your pole spear so you don’t lose it!
Check out our detailed pole fishing guide for more information.
Note that all of these spear tips are available for spearguns as well.
After covering the Hawaiian sling and pole spear above, let’s dive into the world of spearguns. Spearguns are the hunting tool of choice for most spearos since they allow for a powerful and accurate shot.
There are many aspects we could cover around the speargun, but that’s already covered in our in-depth speargun guide.
Rather, let’s cover what you should look for in picking the best speargun to get started in the sport.
Best Speargun for Beginners
Having talked to many spearos, the general consensus for a spearo’s first gun is one that’s short enough to move around easily in the water, easy to load, easy to reload, and cheap enough to not empty your wallet since it probably needs to be replaced for a better gun once you’re good.
|Size||Between 90 to 110 cm.|
|Slings||Opt for double slings because you could always load only one if you need less power around rocks and reefs.|
|Floatline or Reel||
Check out our detailed speargun guide to help you pick the best one.
This is the most common method of spearfishing. Fish are sensitive to their surroundings so it’s important to be a silent hunter and the only way to do this is to hold your breath and dive into the depths.
Many beginner spearos get frustrated by their lack of downtime underwater. Large fish have been taken in shallow waters and the surface or mid-water level.
It takes practice.
That’s why it’s always recommended that you have as much time in the water as possible. You’ll find that the reason you can’t stay down is not that you can’t hold your breath for long enough, but because you’re not relaxed given the situation of being in the middle of the ocean hunting.
It’s always recommended that if you’re new to spearfishing that you find ways to get comfortable. This means using a dive buddy or if you have the ability, taking a freediving course. If you can mentally handle the stress of diving deep with an instructor who shows your proper technique, then you’ll be better at shooting fish.
There are a lot of spearos who discourage you from spearfishing with scuba gear. They feel like it’s not the pure method and doesn’t add enough challenge due to not having to hold your breath.
However, I know a spearo who brings his gun whenever he dives just in case he needs to protect himself from sharks or sees a good fish worth taking during the dive. He enjoys it, so good for him.
The biggest issue I see with scuba spearfishing is the amount of fish you scare away due to the bubbles your produce from breathing in and out. If you’re fishing in a place that’s loaded with fish then this might not be a big deal and by all means, take the fish any way you’d like.
As always, be careful of those around you while spearfishing, without scuba gear.
Once you have purchased your spear gun or pole spear, it’s strongly advised you to either find someone who can teach you how to spear fish or go out with friends who are more advanced than you.
You should always dive with a buddy for safety.
Here’s the proper dive buddy protocol:
- As one person is diving down, the other should stay on the surface.
- Each partner can take turns doing this.
Sometimes it can be hard to find dive buddies if you’re just getting into this sport. Even if you find a friend, they might be at the same level as you, which doesn’t give you a seasoned individual to help keep you safe or fix flaws in your technique.
I’ve found spearo dive buddies on forums such as:
Another place to find dive buddies is at local spearfishing organizations in your city. If you live in Southern California you can head to a meeting for either the LA Fathomiers, Long Beach Neptunes, or San Diego Freedivers Club.
How to Spear Fish
Now that you are ready with your gear and your dive buddy, it’s time for you to go spear some fish.
Let’s dive into how to spear fish easily.
It’s best that you try and stay in less than 15 feet of water.
In other words, practice your first few times going in the water in shallow water. This will alleviate the temptation to go deeper. You want to practice your breath-holds in shallow water until you feel comfortable, then slowly work on going deeper, each time only graduating when you are totally comfortable at each level.
It also wouldn’t hurt to practice breath-holding in a pool, but make sure you have proper supervision in case you blackout.
One of the key things is to remain relaxed and calm.
There are a few reasons for this.
- One reason is that if you are not relaxed, it will affect your breath-holding ability.
- Your dive won’t be as pleasurable if you are nervous.
- The fish can pick up on your heartbeat…so STAY CALM!
When you arrive at the beach or a rocky shore, the first thing you want to do is look at the surf and see how the visibility looks from the dive site. For a beginner, if the surf is more than three feet, I would NOT recommend going out. If you do go out, go out with somebody who has substantially more experience than you. This way, they can explain to you how to go through the surf during the small sets.
If you are a beginner and are diving by yourself, you should wait until the surf is under two feet. Even though it is sometimes hard to find a dive buddy, it should be stated that
If you’re a beginner, don’t go out by yourself.
Once you are at the beach, if the conditions are good, and you are diving with someone with more experience than you…you are ready to get in the water.
For beginners, it’s not advised to dive around thick kelp beds because it can be intimidating. It is easy to inadvertently get wrapped around the kelp bed. Also, most beginners don’t have the skills to get themselves untangled (which is why you should always carry a knife).
As a side note, Palos Verdes Peninsula and Malibu, California are two excellent places to hunt for beginners. If you can get on a boat, the Long Beach break wall and the Seal Beach break wall are very “fishy” areas and are great places for beginners to sharpen their skills.
Types of Fish to Shoot
When you are in the water with your dive buddy, here are a few fish that I advise targeting for your first few dives:
- Rubberlip Perch
- Pile Perch
- Kelp Bass
- Mahi mahi fish (if you hop on a buddy’s boat and find patties)
The surf Perch family, as well as the Sargo, are a good target to start hunting. They are not a very “spooky” fish. As a general rule, try and target fish that are over twelve inches. That way, you will at least get a good filet to take home and eat.
The Sheephead must be at least twelve inches. They are the next logical group of fish to target because they are easier to target for the same reason as the Perch and Sargo. Sometimes, you find the Sheephead on the bottom, eating urchins. When they are busy eating, they are an easy target.
The Halibut can be very easy to spear once you learn how to spot them in the sand. But spotting them in the sand can be very tricky because they like to bury themselves in the sand, and sometimes you literally can’t see them. When you learn how to see the outline of the Halibut or their jaw bone, then once you spot them, they become an easy target. You can find them in sand patches around the reefs, laying in the sand next to the reef or covered by eelgrass.
The Kelp Bass (Calico) is one of the more difficult fish to hunt. One reason for this is because spearfishermen are always targeting them and they are literally gun shy. They seem to always see you before you move your spear towards them. One of the best ways to hunt Kelp Bass is sitting on the surface in the kelp and waiting for them to swim by. Another way is to lay on the bottom (5 feet to 20 feet for a beginner) and wait for them to come by.
For more details of which fish to shoot in Southern California (including pictures), check out our guide.
Shooting Fish With a Gun
It’s one thing to be able to get close to a fish without spooking them. It’s another to be able to aim, pull the trigger, and hit them.
Practice, practice, practice.
If you’re lucky enough to have a pool in your backyard, set up some targets and practice hitting them from various distances. The more shots you take the easier it’ll be to hit the fish when the moment counts.
Some spearos want to practice on live fish, but it’s unadvisable since you’re damaging the local ecosystem if you just shoot and leave the fish there. It’s better to only shoot fish you have the intention of bringing home and eating.
Spearfishing for Beginners: A Few Quality Locations
Depending on where you live, you may or may not have great spearfishing locations available to you. However, if you live in California, Hawaii, or Florida, you have some of the best spots in the United States to hunt.
If you’re not in any of these locations, maybe it’s time to take a trip out here and give it a shot.
Spearfishing Southern California
Southern California has a great variety of fish to hunt. If you haven’t already done so, make sure you check out our guide to spearfishing Southern California fish.
Spearfishing Los Angeles
Los Angeles has great spots from Malibu all the way down to Long Beach. It’s home of one of the oldest spearfishing clubs, the Fathomiers.
If you’re looking for white sea bass or yellowtail, check out the kelp forests near Palos Verdes. There are quite a few Marine Protected Areas, so always check the updated maps to make sure you’re not taking fish in the wrong location.
Spearfishing San Diego
San Diego has beautiful beaches and kelp forests to check out.
There are also a large number of boat charters out of Mission Bay if you want to pay to get away from the shore and into the deeper water.
There are lots of spots and most of them hold fish since Catalina is an island with less fishing traffic than along the coast of Los Angeles or San Diego.
It’s great to rent a tandem kayak at Descanso Beach and paddle up the coast. There a stretches of long sandy beaches that hold halibut and leopard sharks depending on the time of year, however, I’d refrain from shooting the leopards.
If you’re in Avalon be careful not to carry your speargun in public. There have been issues with other spearos in the past where they were hassled about it. Keep yourself happy and keep it concealed in a large bag.
Spearfishing in Hawaii is amazing with the blue waters and the vibrant fish that hang around the various islands.
However, there is also an invasive species problem there, so if you’re a beginner and need the practice, it could be good to head over and shoot them all.
Hawaii Invasive Fish Species
Going for Tako (octopus) is a fun way to spearfish in Oahu. They key is to get them out of the hole alive without shooting by toying or tickling them.
There is a lot of water around the island so make sure you check where they allow you to go out and fish. If you can get on a boat, you’ll increase your chances of finding better fishing grounds. Most of the time you’ll have to dive down quite deep so it could be a challenge for beginners.
If you explore at night you can also find some lobsters and good size parrotfish. Spearos rave about uku, so try and get one while you’re out there.
Some spots worth checking out is Kaneohe and Ka’a’awa.
Spearfishing in Florida is plentiful, but their rules are different than California or Hawaii so make sure you check with the local regulations before going out.
Fish you should NOT target spearfishing:
Here’s the list from the Florida Fish and Wildlife site (check it to make sure you’re up-to-date):
- Billfish (all species)
- Spotted eagle ray
- Manta ray
- Goliath Grouper
- Blue Crab
- Nassau grouper
- Spotted seatrout
- Red drum
- Stone Crab
- African pompano
- Families of ornamental reef fish (surgeonfish, trumpetfish, angelfish, butterflyfish, porcupinefish, cornetfish, squirrelfish, trunkfish, damselfish, parrotfish, pipefish, seahorse, puffers, triggerfish except for gray triggerfish and ocean)
Note that you are not allowed to spearfish for freshwater species or in freshwater, but that’s pretty standard in most areas of the country.
The water is warm down near Florida and there are many great boat charters that will take you to the Keys. There are always people posting about Hogfish down there. Pole spears are quite popular down there as well. Florida is known to be difficult to spearfish from shore as Florida Wildlife will fine you if you get caught.
Play it safe and get on a boat and then go spearfishing.